Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods are non-destructive measurement techniques for investigating material properties. While SAXS is used for revealing size, shape, porosity, crystallinity, orientation, etc. of nanostructures, XRD deals with properties at smaller scales, to investigate chemical composition of materials. In both cases X-rays are projected to samples in order to interact with the electrons within the samples. As a result, elastically scattered photons are recorded on detectors. In return, this data gives us scattering curves (of photons) in SAXS, and in XRD, diffraction peaks. Non-ambient attachment capabilities of each technique expand the possibilities of in-situ experiments such as investigating material conformational changes during operations.
SAXS covers many different applications, including biological samples (proteins, lipids), nanoparticle dispersions, emulsions, surfactants, metals, polymers, fibers, catalysts and many others while XRD finds a broad use in pharmaceutical, food, ceramic industry, battery as well as chemical industry.
In this presentation, theory and background information, capabilities of each method, parameters that can be measured with each method, examples from real life will be discussed. Moreover, a live demo of XRD and/or SAXS instrument will be presented.