Urine

Refractometric anaylsis of the urine of patients and athletes quickly shows vital human health parameters such as urine specific gravity, urine total solids and urine osmotic pressure.

Acute dehydration is a significant health risk and can lead to heat stroke and death. Some athletes in weight-regulated sports such as boxing, wrestling and martial arts purposefully limit fluid intake before matches in order to reduce their body weight to qualify for certain events. In 1997, for example, three collegiate wrestlers died because they wanted to reduce their weight by dehydration. 

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