Scratch test for characterization of adhesion of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

Lithium-ion batteries are composed of thin metallic electrodes that are coated with either lithium metal oxide or layered carbon. The quality and durability of the battery depends both on the type of electrode coating and also on its adhesion to the electrode itself. Here we show the use of the scratch test for adhesion measurements of electrode coatings.

Although lithium batteries were discovered in the 1910s, the first commercially available lithium based batteries appeared in the 1970s [1]. These batteries were non-rechargeable. Development of rechargeable batteries started in the 1980s but due to the instability of lithium used in the anode (risk of fire) they were not successful. The first safe lithium-ion rechargeable battery (LIB) was produced in the 1990s by Sony. This battery had a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoOx) cathode and it is today the most common LIB type in consumer electronics. New types of LIB chemistries such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), lithium ion manganese oxide (LiMn2O4, LMO) and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNiMnCoO2, NMC) have been developed since then, with the NMC-type battery used primarily in automotive applications [2–4].

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