Milk Powder Characterization - Dissolution of Infant Formula and the Final Milk Product

Knowing the properties and behavior of powders and granular media is essential for many industrial applications. Powder behavior is not only critical for the manufacturing process and transportation, but it also influences the product’s final use. Thus, properties influencing the solubility of infant and toddler formula are important parameters to be investigated. This application report presents multiple characterization methods such as specific surface area, particle size, and permeability, to define the nature of infant/toddler milk powder with respect to formulation. Furthermore, the particle size and rheological behavior of the final dissolved milk powder, prepared based on the manufacturers’ instructions, were investigated. Those results provide important information about the milk flow out of the baby bottle during consumption as well as the texture of the fluid.


Not only is powdered milk a commonly used basic food item in situations where fresh milk is not available, but powdered infant formula is very important for infants and toddlers either as supplementation to or as a substitution for breast feeding, especially for those cared for in a nursery. Infant formula needs to meet the nutritional requirements of children’s bodies by resembling the composition of breast milk through its special formulation.
Experiments were carried out using two milk powder samples: an infant formula, suitable for the first six months of life, and a toddler formula, for kids above the age of one.
Generally infant formula is mostly pure milk powder, but the nutritional needs of toddlers warrant a higher energy intake. This is addressed by the addition of sugars (most commonly maltodextrine). This in turn changes the structure, texture, and flow behavior of the formula (both in its powdered state and when dissolved) and critically affects the dissolution behavior as well.

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