Liquid Density Measurements with a High-Temperature Rheometer
Thermophysical properties are key parameters for designing and controlling a large number of high-temperature manufacturing processes. We present a combined approach to measure density using a Modular Compact Rheometer with normal force control up to 1730 °C, maintaining full rheometric functionality. This enables sequential or simultaneous characterization of high temperature liquids for multiple thermophysical properties.
Thermophysical properties are key parameters for designing and controlling a large number of e.g. metal manufacturing processes. Especially density, viscosity and surface tension represent essential input parameters for process modeling. Numerous methods exist to determine the density of liquids. For ambient and near-ambient conditions, U-tube oscillation represents the gold standard with the possibility to determine density with high accuracy of 10-3 kg m-3 . For higher temperatures, the state-of-the-art is represented by Archimedean, pycnometric, push-rod dilatometer methods, gamma ray attenuation , maximum bubble pressure method, sessile drop method , levitation methods  and fast resistive pulse heating . Still, for many commercially used metals and metal alloys these parameters are unknown due to the challenging and difficult measuring procedures and high uncertainties of the results . The method of choice for determining the density of a metallic liquid phase depends on the investigated temperature range, the availability of sample material, chemical interactions with containers, vapor pressure and required precision.
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