Joe Flow - Rheology Standards
In this issue I explain why ISO, ASTM and DIN standards exist. I will use some examples to show how standards around the world help to ensure and perhaps even improve the quality of your products through comparable measurement results.
Due to increasing industrialization in the 19th century and associated mass production, the desire for uniform test methods and standards for the characterization of materials arose. For better comparability, user-oriented regulations should be drawn up in order to achieve good quality and thus give users more confidence. In addition, the norms should be usable as binding standards in the event of legal disputes. The preparation of standards in the relevant working groups is always associated with a labour-intensive and time-consuming process of compromise-building between the different interests of manufacturers, vendors, users and end customers.
In 1898, ASTM, the American Society for Testing and Materials, was founded. Initially, specifications were developed for testing materials, e.g. to characterize tensile and compressive strength. The first examples were iron and steel (for railway tracks, furnace plates, steam engines, locomotives, bridges and ships), and cement and concrete (for the construction of roads and high-rise buildings), followed later by, e.g. rubber (for automobiles), petroleum and mineral oils (as heating materials and lubricants).
Around 1917, the Standards Committee of German Industry (NADI) was founded. DIN 1 of 1918 dealt with taper pins. This became the DIN Institute, the German Institute for Standardization, in 1975. The International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA) was created in 1926, from which the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was founded after 1945. Their working groups develop standards that are applied worldwide.
To date, there are a variety of standards. In the following you will find a selection and summary of the most important standards, especially for users of rotational and oscillatory rheometers.
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