Graphene Characterization

Graphene and graphene-related materials have revolutionized numerous areas of materials science and technology. Their massive technological success is related to their unique structural and chemical properties. Graphene structure and key fundamental properties such as surface area, pore size, and density are examined.

1 Introduction

Graphene has arguably the largest surface area to volume ratio among novel 2D crystalline layered materials. Being spread as an atom-thick layer of hexagonal ring-bound carbon atoms, all atoms in a graphene sheet are surface exposed. This gives graphene a rich array of unique surface physical, chemical, and electronic properties that continue to open doors for new applications in nanotechnology and energy.

2 Surface Area

Surface area impacts every application of graphene and graphene-related materials (such as graphene oxide, graphene-metal oxide composites, heteroatom-doped graphene, and nanostructured photocatalysts, among others). It is largely the exposed surface of these materials that interacts with gases, liquids, solids, electrons, ions, photons, and phonons. Therefore, evaluation of the surface area of graphene materials is a crucial step in understanding and optimizing their performance.

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