Detection of Titanium Dioxide in Food

Raman spectroscopy is a rapid and easy method to identify titanium dioxide (E171), a white pigment widely used in the food and consumer goods industries.

Introduction

Titanium dioxide is a white pigment which is used in paints, plastics, paper, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, sunscreen, and toothpaste or as catalyst.[1,2,3]

In addition, it has been approved as a food additive (ingredient number E171) since 1969.[4] The main food categories containing titanium dioxide are candy, bakery wares (esp. icing and decorations), chewing gum, ice cream, and cheese.[2] Most food-grade titanium dioxide contains its anatase modification.[3] It is highly stable towards various conditions (e.g. heat, light, pH) and thus unaffected by almost every type of food processing.

References

[1] A. Weir et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 2242−2250.

[2] EFSA ANS Panel, EFSA Journal, 2016, 14(9):4545, 83.

[3] C. Rompelberg et al., Nanotoxicology, 2016, 10:10, 1404-1414.

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