Application Report PNR 12: Consistency of Margarine and Other Edible Fats

The penetrometer PNR 12 is suitable for consistency measurements required in the food industry. Various accessories and test kits according to the AOCS and the Unilever method are available for edible fats like butter, margarine and others.

This Application Report describes how the consistency of margarine and other edible fats is measured and classified with Anton Paar’s penetrometer PNR 12 according to the AOCS and the Unilever method.

The PNR 12 is a gravity penetrometer and measures the resistance a material provides against being pierced by a specifically shaped test body. A needle-shaped or conical test body is lowered precisely to the sample surface, and then sinks into the material by its own weight during a defined period of time. This penetration which is indicated in penetration units (PU) or directly in millimeters allows a rating of the plasticity or consistency.

Due to its easy handling and convertibility the penetrometer PNR 12 has gained a wide scope of application. It is an ideal solution for consistency tests of butter, margarine and other edible fats.

Common procedures of testing these products are the AOCS method Cc16-60 or the Unilever method. These methods use test cones with different angles.

The penetration depth in tenth of millimeters is reported and used to calculate the C-value (yield point or consistency value of margarine) in g/cm2. The PNR 12 will display the C-value directly after the measurement is finished.

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