Acid Digestion of Lithium-Ion Battery Materials using Multiwave 7000

Multiwave 7000 with PDC (Pressurized Digestion Cavity) technology is a powerful tool to digest various Li-Ion battery materials for subsequent element analysis in an easy way.

Introduction

The global market for rechargeable batteries is largely driven by increasing usage in electric vehicles, grid storage and portable consumer de

Research & Development departments are steadily developing various alternative high energy density materials for new battery types. In addition, QA/QC methods for Li-ion battery producers are also becoming more stringent.

It is very important to determine the exact and consistent element composition of the electrode raw materials during development and quality control in battery manufacturing, as these affect performance and possibly safety of the end products. In addition concentrations of impurity levels must also be accurately measured in the battery components. Impurities can deteriorate the electrochemical stability, influence the efficiency, in worst case, cause short circuits and shorten battery life time drastically.

Elemental analysis of Li-ion battery compounds is performed with ICP-OES for composition analysis and ICP-MS for contamination analysis – both require adequately digested samples. Microwave- assisted acid digestion is the optimum tool to face these challenges.

Multiwave 7000 with its well-established PDC offers an advanced temperature level of up to 300 °C, thus providing complete digestions for demanding samples.

In order to demonstrate the suitability of Multiwave 7000 various cathode and anode materials as well as conductive additives and separators were digested in different digestion runs, pooled according to their requirements for digestion.

Lithium-ion batteries are generally composed of lithiated metal oxides or phosphates as positive electrode (cathode) material, a carbonaceous material as negative electrode (anode) material, and a suitable electrolyte1 . The electrolyte consists of a well-defined blend of organic carbonates plus a conducting salt, mainly LiPF6. A thin polymer foil, electrically isolating, but permeable for Li-ions, serves as separator.

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