Lubricants and waxes
Complete analysis of lubricants and waxes
Oils, greases or dry lubricants are used to minimize friction and wear in mechanical systems. Paraffin and petroleum waxes are used in countless applications, from industrial molding to candle-making. To analyze and determine composition, performance, quality, and processability of lubricants and waxes, Anton Paar offers a wide range of solutions to characterize properties such as density, viscosity, refractive index, demulsibility, and shear stability. Other measuring methods to improve product quality are foam testing, friction and wear testing (under diverse environmental conditions), and penetration testing.
Anton Paar Products
Abbemat Heavy Duty Line
Abbemat MW Multiwavelengths Refractometer
Abbemat Performance and Performance Plus Line
Capillary Extension: HTK 1200N
Cleveland Flash & Fire Point Tester: CLA 5
Density and sound velocity meter: DSA 5000 M
Density meter: DMA™ 501
Density meter: DMA™ 4100 M
Density meter: DMA™ 4200 M
Density meter: DMA™ 4500 M
Density meter: DMA™ 5000 M
Dynamic shear rheometer measuring head: DSR 502
External measuring cell: DMA™ HPM
Foaming Characteristics: Foam Tester
Grease Working Machine: GWM 5
HTR Compact: Rheometer autosampler for high sample throughput
HTR: Rheometer automation for high sample throughput and complex sample handling
HTX: Measurement of viscosity, density, concentration of liquids, highly automated and expandable
Handheld density meter: DMA 35 Basic
Heated sample changer: Xsample 610
Heated sample changer: Xsample 630
Herschel Emulsifier: DH 5
High Pressure Digestion: HPA-S High Pressure Asher
High-precision thermometers: MKT 50 and MKT 10
Inline Viscometer: L-Vis 510
Kinematic viscometer: SVM 2001
Kinematic viscometer: SVM 3001
Kinematic viscometer: SVM 4001
L-Dens 3300 density sensor
L-Dens 7000 density sensor series
Micro Scratch Tester (MST³)
Monowave 450: Automated Microwave-assisted Extraction
Nano Tribometer (NTR³)
Penetrometer: PNR 12
Pensky-Martens flash point tester: PMA 5
Pico 3000/Pico 3000 remote control
Pin-on-disk tribometer: TRB³
Portable density meter: DMA 35
Rheometer: MCR 102, MCR 302, MCR 502
Rotational Rheometer: RheolabQC
Rotational Viscometer ViscoQC 100
Rotational Viscometer ViscoQC 300
Routine SAXS/WAXS/BIOSAXS analysis: SAXSpace
SAXS/WAXS/GISAXS laboratory beamline: SAXSpoint 2.0
Sample changer: Xsample 330
Sample changer: Xsample 340
Sample changer: Xsample 530
Ultra nanoindentation tester: UNHT³
Vacuum Tribometer (VTHT / VTRB)
Anton Paar Applications
Tracking the Phase Transitions of Phase-changing Materials
Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering allows to track the phase transition of phase-change materials. This study reveals the melting/crystallization behavior of paraffin wax as characterized by combined SWAXS and DSC measurements.
SAXSpoint with MetalJet Source
SAXSpoint now integrates the high-brightness MetalJet X-ray source enabling ultra-fast SAXS measurements in the laboratory.
Correlating Viscosity and Particle Size Parameters determined by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies of concentrated MAb Solutions
Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) solutions are a major class of biopharmaceuticals with various applications. However, challenges like a high viscosity at the required MAb concentrations need to be addressed at an early development stage.
Application RapidOxy: Production Control of Waxes and Paraffins
Waxes and paraffins have a broad range of production applications for end products due to their versatile characteristics such as melting point, viscosity, hardness etc.
In-Situ observation of the scratch/indentation true contact area to provide analysis without being model-dependent
Nanotribological properties of Diamond like carbon thin flexible films on ACM rubber
Application RapidOxy: Stability of Lubricating Greases
The stability of lubricating greases with different thickener types was tested at 160 °C in the RapidOxy and according to the ASTM D942.
Application DH 5: Water Separability acc. ASTM and ISO
This test method covers measurement of the ability of petroleum oils or synthetic fluids to separate from water. It is used for specification of new oils and monitoring of in-service oils.
Application RapidOxy: Stability of Neat Cutting Oils
Neat cutting oils are used in machining operations, e.g. grinding, turning, milling, broaching, drilling, tapping, gear cutting etc., to provide cooling and lubrication of the tools and a good surface finish of the components being machined.
Inline measurement of the viscosity of lubricants at a lubricant manufacturing plant L-Vis 510 will continuously be in place in your production line obtaining viscosity and temperature values
Lubes and viscosity
The viscosity of a lubricant is one of its most important physical properties. It can be influenced with various additives in order to achieve the correct viscosity value. The lubricant should form a protective film but not cause excessive energy losses within the film. Anton Paar viscometers determine the viscosity index (VI) to examine the viscosity change relative to temperature changes. Besides additives, lubricants consist of base oils. Their quality is also best specified by means of the VI. Anton Paar viscometers allow for reliable determination of both, kinematic and dynamic viscosity and additional calculation of the VI according to ASTM, EN, and ISO standards with just one filling. In addition, continuous real-time control with viscosity process sensors guarantees the quality of the lubricants during production.
Quality control of lubricants
Lubricating oils, cutting oils, and greases keep friction down and reduce downtimes for industrial machinery. Refractometry is one method to determine the composition of different groups of hydrocarbons contained in lubes and waxes. This gives important insights into their quality.
In lubricating oils important quality control parameters include the concentration of additives (which contain metals such as calcium, copper, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc) as well as metals like silicon, boron, potassium, vanadium, and lead resulting from wear. Modern sample preparation methods according to ASTM, such as microwave-assisted acid digestion, are required to determine the metal content for subsequent analysis, using analytical techniques such as ICP-MS and ICP-OES with low determination limits.
For high-throughput requirements Anton Paar offers turnkey and customized automation solutions fitting the needs of lubricants testing and complying with ASTM standards.
Reducing friction and wear
The development of customized lubricant additives, the process of combining them, and the corresponding interaction processes are very challenging tasks. Tribological measurements provide information about the entire system, including the mating surfaces, the lubricant as well as the surrounding conditions. Anton Paar tribometers measure the performance of lubricants at different contact pressures, sliding speeds, temperatures, and relative humidity. The lube formulation can then be modified until it is suitable for its specific purpose.
Resistance to foam formation
A lubricant’s ability to resist foaming is crucial. The formation of stable foam increases the surface area of the oil which is exposed to small bubbles of air, thus favoring oxidation. The foam can also cause loss of oil from a system by overflow or prevent the lubricant from effectively providing protection against metal to metal contact. A careful choice of type and amount of defoaming additives provides the correct balance of foam protection and air release properties. With an Anton Paar foam tester, you determine a lubricant’s ability to resist foam formation and dissipate foam quickly.
Analysis of waxes
Anton Paar density meters and viscometers effortlessly measure heavy samples such as waxes and grease in order to determine the right consistency. Refractometers provide correct identification and concentration measurements of raw, intermediate, and final products, such as vaseline or wax. Additionally, Anton Paar offers thermo-optical-based refractometers that allow the investigation of the melting and crystallization behavior of waxes as well as the differentiation of crystal modifications. The stability and thus durability of, for example, Polyethylene Wax (PE wax) is checked with Anton Paar’s oxidation stability tester. For measuring the basic property ‘consistency’, a sophisticated penetrometer with automated surface detection is available.