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paraffines, waxes

Lubricants and waxes

Complete analysis of lubricants and waxes

Oils, greases or dry lubricants are used to minimize friction and wear in mechanical systems. Paraffin and petroleum waxes are used in countless applications, from industrial molding to candle-making. To analyze and determine composition, performance, quality, and processability of lubricants and waxes, Anton Paar offers a wide range of solutions to characterize properties such as density, viscosity, refractive index, demulsibility, and shear stability. Other measuring methods to improve product quality are foam testing, friction and wear testing (under diverse environmental conditions), and penetration testing. 

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Anton Paar Products

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Abbemat Heavy Duty

Abbemat Heavy Duty Line

Abbemat WR/MW, Multi wavelengt refractometer

Abbemat MW Multiwavelengths Refractometer

Abbemat Performance and Performance Plus

Abbemat Performance and Performance Plus Line

High-temperature chamber HTK 1200N for combined reflection and transmission XRD studies at high temperatures up to 1200 °C

Capillary Extension: HTK 1200N

The automatic Cleveland open cup tester features a fire extinguishing device, automatic relighting and a skin removal device for bitumen.

Cleveland Flash & Fire Point Tester: CLA 5

DMA™ 35 Portable Density Meter

DMA™ 4100 M density meter

DMA™ 4200 M density meter

DMA™ 4500 M density meter

DMA™ 5000 M density meter

Density Meter: DMA™ 501

Density and Sound Velocity Meter: DSA 5000 M

External Measuring Cell: DMA™ HPM

Foam Tester Twin-Bath (air pump optional)

Foaming Characteristics: Foam Tester

Two-place grease working machine with stroke counter.

Grease Working Machine: GWM 5

DH 5 Herschel emulsifier with accessories for 8 test places

Herschel Emulsifier: DH 5

HPA-S represents the ultimate performance in wet chemical high pressure digestion sample preparation for AAS, ICP and Voltammetry. The HPA-S acid digestion method is an internationally recognized reference procedure and is in operation as a high-performance routine instrument in numerous laboratories.

High Pressure Digestion: HPA-S High Pressure Asher

High Throughput Viscometer HTV

High Troughput Rheometer

High-Throughput Rheometer: HTR

High-precision thermometers: MKT 50 and MKT 10

Inline Viscometers L-Vis 510 and 520 Ex

Inline Viscometer for Hazardous Areas: L-Vis 520 Ex

Inline Viscometer: L-Vis 510

L-Dens 2300 density sensor

L-Dens 3300 density sensor

L-Dens 7000 density sensor series

L-Sonic 5100/L-Sonic 6100 Sound Velocity Sensors

MCR Tribometers

Micro Scratch Tester (MST³)

The Multiwave PRO microwave reaction system serves two groups: professionals in trace analysis and synthetic chemistry.

Microwave Reaction System: Multiwave PRO

SAXSpace instrument

Modular SAXS/WAXS system: SAXSpace

Monowave 450: Automated Microwave-assisted Extraction

Nano Tribometer (NTR³)

Penetrometer PNR 12 with accessories for cone penetration and needle penetration.

Penetrometer: PNR 12

The automatic Pensky-Martens closed cup tester PMA 4 SC features a 12-place sample changer, a fire extinguishing device, a patented   connection system, gas and electric ignition.

Pensky-Martens Flash Point Tester with Sample Changer: PMA 4 SC

The automatic Pensky-Martens closed cup tester features a fire extinguishing device, a patented connection system, gas and electric ignition.

Pensky-Martens Flash Point Tester: PMA 5

Rheometer Measuring Head

MCR Rheometer Series: Oscillatory and rotational rheometers from Anton Paar for QC, product development and R&D.

Rheometer: MCR 102, 302, 502

The RheolabQC is the quality control rheometer from Anton Paar. RheolabQC with temperature device C-PTD 180/AIR/QC and with Flexible Cup Holder.

Rotational Rheometer: RheolabQC

Rotational Viscometer ViscoQC™ 100

SVM™ Series

TRB³: Pin-on-disk tribometer

Ultra Nanoindentation Tester (UNHT³)

High Temperature Vacuum Tribometer

Vacuum Tribometer (VTHT / VTRB)

Versatile Laboratory SAXS/WAXS/GISAXS system: SAXSpoint 2.0

Xsample™ 330

Xsample™ 340

Perfect results with automatic cleaning and needle washing using up to three cleaning solvents.

Xsample™ 530

Xsample™ 630

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Anton Paar Products Applications

Application PNR 12: Consistency Measurement According to the European Pharmacopoeia 2.9.9 and the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP)

Application PNR 12: Consistency Measurement According to the European Pharmacopoeia 2.9.9 and the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP)

Suitable for products like white or yellow petrolatum (vaselinum album and flavum), ointment, wax and carboxymethylcellulose sodium paste.

Tracking the Phase Transitions of Phase-changing Materials

Tracking the Phase Transitions of Phase-changing Materials

Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering allows to track the phase transition of phase-change materials. This study reveals the melting/crystallization behavior of paraffin wax as characterized by combined SWAXS and DSC measurements.

SAXSpoint with MetalJet Source

SAXSpoint with MetalJet Source

SAXSpoint now integrates the high-brightness MetalJet X-ray source enabling ultra-fast SAXS measurements in the laboratory.

Correlating Viscosity and Particle Size Parameters determined by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies of concentrated MAb Solutions

Correlating Viscosity and Particle Size Parameters determined by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies of concentrated MAb Solutions

Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) solutions are a major class of biopharmaceuticals with various applications. However, challenges like a high viscosity at the required MAb concentrations need to be addressed at an early development stage.

Application RapidOxy: Production Control of Waxes and Paraffins

Application RapidOxy: Production Control of Waxes and Paraffins

Waxes and paraffins have a broad range of production applications for end products due to their versatile characteristics such as melting point, viscosity, hardness etc.

In-Situ observation of the scratch/indentation true contact area to provide analysis without being model-dependent

In-Situ observation of the scratch/indentation true contact area to provide analysis without being model-dependent

Nanotribological properties of Diamond like carbon thin flexible films on ACM rubber

Nanotribological properties of Diamond like carbon thin flexible films on ACM rubber

Application RapidOxy: Stability of Lubricating Greases

Application RapidOxy: Stability of Lubricating Greases

The stability of lubricating greases with different thickener types was tested at 160 °C in the RapidOxy and according to the ASTM D942.

Determining the right time for an oil change with SVM™ 3001

Determining the right time for an oil change with SVM™ 3001

SVM™ 3001 gives you more parameters than any other kinematic viscometer on the market. A single measuring cycle on a small sample volume yields kinematic viscosity, density, dynamic viscosity, viscosity index and more.

Viscosity of Lubricating Oil with SVM™ 3001

Viscosity of Lubricating Oil with SVM™ 3001

SVM™ 3001 gives you more parameters than any other kinematic viscometer on the market. A single measuring cycle on a small sample volume yields kinematic viscosity, density, dynamic viscosity, viscosity index and more.

Fastest Viscosity Index Determination from the Lowest Sample Volume with SVM™ 4001

Fastest Viscosity Index Determination from the Lowest Sample Volume with SVM™ 4001

SVM™ 4001 determines kinematic viscosity and density at two different measuring temperatures simultaneously with one filling in one measuring cycle. This innovative double cell technology allows for up to 24 viscosity index measurements per hour.

Calculation of the Carbon Type Distribution of Oils with SVM™ 4001 and Abbemat

Calculation of the Carbon Type Distribution of Oils with SVM™ 4001 and Abbemat

SVM™ 4001 determines kinematic viscosity and density at two different measuring temperatures simultaneously in one go. Combined with an Abbemat refractometer, fast and automated carbon distribution analysis of oils is performed according to ASTM D3238.

Determination of Static Friction

Determination of Static Friction

MCR tribometers from Anton Paar enable precise and reproducible measurements of tribological characteristics such as limiting friction and break-away forces.

Extend your Rheometer to Tribology

Extend your Rheometer to Tribology

Employ the precise motion and force control of MCR rheometers for your tribological measurements. Use a range of accessories designed to work at their best in the MCR series.

Four ball MCR Tribometer

Four ball MCR Tribometer

MCR Tribometer platform from Anton Paar offers a new setup for tribological measurements with the well-known four ball geometry.

Optimization of Lubrication Additives with Anton Paar Tribometers

Optimization of Lubrication Additives with Anton Paar Tribometers

The MCR tribometer from Anton Paar enables measurements of tribological properties in 9 decades of motion control.

Viscosity of Automotive Brake Fluids

Viscosity of Automotive Brake Fluids

The viscosity of brake fluids is a critical parameter for passenger safety. The SVM™ 3001 offers unbeatable fast and reliable viscosity testing at all required temperatures and features automatic calculation of the Viscosity Index.

Viscosity of Metalworking Fluids in Cutting Processes

Viscosity of Metalworking Fluids in Cutting Processes

The metalworking fluid is a vital part of the manufacturing process. Viscosity influences the liquid’s performance and the manufacturing quality. SVM™ 3001 is a fast and precise solution to measure the quality-relevant parameters viscosity and density.

Application DH 5: Water Separability acc. ASTM and ISO

Application DH 5: Water Separability acc. ASTM and ISO

This test method covers measurement of the ability of petroleum oils or synthetic fluids to separate from water. It is used for specification of new oils and monitoring of in-service oils.

Application RapidOxy: Stability of Neat Cutting Oils

Application RapidOxy: Stability of Neat Cutting Oils

Neat cutting oils are used in machining operations, e.g. grinding, turning, milling, broaching, drilling, tapping, gear cutting etc., to provide cooling and lubrication of the tools and a good surface finish of the components being machined.

Application_Flash_lubricants_and_oils.pdf

Application_Flash_lubricants_and_oils.pdf

Bearing Characterization with Full Motion Flexibility and High Precision

Bearing Characterization with Full Motion Flexibility and High Precision

MCR tribometers from Anton Paar allow for fast ball bearing characterization with superior motion, temperature and humidity control.

Lubricants

Lubricants

Inline measurement of the viscosity of lubricants at a lubricant manufacturing plant L-Vis 510 will continuously be in place in your production line obtaining viscosity and temperature values

Precision Motion Control for Tribological Measurements

Precision Motion Control for Tribological Measurements

Plan and execute measurement profiles with the utmost precision at rotational speeds ranging between 10e-6 and 3000 rpm. Characterize tribological systems with nanoscale accuracy in displacement.

5 Reasons

Lubes and viscosity

The viscosity of a lubricant is one of its most important physical properties. It can be influenced with various additives in order to achieve the correct viscosity value. The lubricant should form a protective film but not cause excessive energy losses within the film. Anton Paar viscometers determine the viscosity index (VI) to examine the viscosity change relative to temperature changes. Besides additives, lubricants consist of base oils. Their quality is also best specified by means of the VI. Anton Paar viscometers allow for reliable determination of both, kinematic and dynamic viscosity and additional calculation of the VI according to ASTM, EN, and ISO standards with just one filling. In addition, continuous real-time control with viscosity process sensors guarantees the quality of the lubricants during production.

Quality control of lubricants

Lubricating oils, cutting oils, and greases keep friction down and reduce downtimes for industrial machinery. Refractometry is one method to determine the composition of different groups of hydrocarbons contained in lubes and waxes. This gives important insights into their quality.

In lubricating oils important quality control parameters include the concentration of additives (which contain metals such as calcium, copper, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc) as well as metals like silicon, boron, potassium, vanadium, and lead resulting from wear. Modern sample preparation methods according to ASTM, such as microwave-assisted acid digestion, are required to determine the metal content for subsequent analysis, using analytical techniques such as ICP-MS and ICP-OES with low determination limits.

For high-throughput requirements Anton Paar offers turnkey and customized automation solutions fitting the needs of lubricants testing and complying with ASTM standards.

Reducing friction and wear

The development of customized lubricant additives, the process of combining them, and the corresponding interaction processes are very challenging tasks. Tribological measurements provide information about the entire system, including the mating surfaces, the lubricant as well as the surrounding conditions. Anton Paar tribometers measure the performance of lubricants at different contact pressures, sliding speeds, temperatures, and relative humidity. The lube formulation can then be modified until it is suitable for its specific purpose.

Resistance to foam formation

A lubricant’s ability to resist foaming is crucial. The formation of stable foam increases the surface area of the oil which is exposed to small bubbles of air, thus favoring oxidation. The foam can also cause loss of oil from a system by overflow or prevent the lubricant from effectively providing protection against metal to metal contact. A careful choice of type and amount of defoaming additives provides the correct balance of foam protection and air release properties. With an Anton Paar foam tester, you determine a lubricant’s ability to resist foam formation and dissipate foam quickly.

Analysis of waxes

Anton Paar density meters and viscometers effortlessly measure heavy samples such as waxes and grease in order to determine the right consistency. Refractometers provide correct identification and concentration measurements of raw, intermediate, and final products, such as vaseline or wax. Additionally, Anton Paar offers thermo-optical-based refractometers that allow the investigation of the melting and crystallization behavior of waxes as well as the differentiation of crystal modifications. The stability and thus durability of, for example, Polyethylene Wax (PE wax) is checked with Anton Paar’s oxidation stability tester. For measuring the basic property ‘consistency’, a sophisticated penetrometer with automated surface detection is available.