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Liquid Fuels

Fuels

Analyze your fuel in compliance with international standards

The analysis of fuels calls for robust and accurate measurement solutions. Anton Paar offers instruments for process and laboratory measurements to identify incoming raw material, monitor production processes, or check the quality of final products such as diesel, ethanol, jet fuel, fuel oil, automotive gasoline, kerosene, biofuels, bio-diesel, bio-alcohol, synthetic fuels, bunker oils, etc.. Parameters like density, viscosity, distillation behavior, flash and fire point, rheological behavior, oxidation stability, cold properties, and ductility for subsequent trace analysis can be determined according to governmental and environmental regulations such as ASTM, EN, and ISO.

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Anton Paar Products

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Abbemat Heavy Duty

Abbemat Heavy Duty Line

Abbemat WR/MW, Multi wavelengt refractometer

Abbemat MW Multiwavelengths Refractometer

Abbemat Performance and Performance Plus

Abbemat Performance and Performance Plus Line

With its extended low temperature range the automatic Abel closed cup tester can measure flash points or detect flammable vapors by the flash/no flash method

Abel Flash Point Tester: ABA 4

Atmospheric Distillation Analyzer: Diana 700

Cora 7X00 Raman Spectrometer with Fiber-optic probe

Benchtop Raman spectrometers: Cora 7X00

Cold Filter Plugging Point Tester Callisto 100 with digital display

Cold Filter Plugging Point Tester: Callisto 100

Density meter: DMA™ 501

Density meter: DMA™ 4100 M

Density meter: DMA™ 4200 M

Density meter: DMA™ 4500 M

Density meter: DMA™ 5000 M

External measuring cell: DMA™ HPM

Gum Content Tester: GUM

HTR: Rheometer automation for high sample throughput and complex sample handling

HTX: Measurement of viscosity, density, concentration of liquids, highly automated and expandable

Handheld Raman spectrometer: Cora 100

Handheld density meter: DMA 35 Basic

HPA-S represents the ultimate performance in wet chemical high pressure digestion sample preparation for AAS, ICP and Voltammetry. The HPA-S acid digestion method is an internationally recognized reference procedure and is in operation as a high-performance routine instrument in numerous laboratories.

High Pressure Digestion: HPA-S High Pressure Asher

High-precision thermometers: MKT 50 and MKT 10

L-Dens 2300 density sensor

L-Dens 3300 density sensor

L-Dens 7000 density sensor series

The Multiwave PRO microwave reaction system serves two groups: professionals in trace analysis and synthetic chemistry.

Microwave Reaction System: Multiwave PRO

Monowave 450: Automated Microwave-assisted Extraction

Multiparameter Analysis: Modulyzer

Oxidation Stability Tester OBA 1 consisting  of a bath, 4 pressure vessels and digital manometers

Oxidation Stability Tester: OBA 1

Oxidation stability tester: RapidOxy 100 Fuel

The automatic Pensky-Martens closed cup tester features a fire extinguishing device, a patented connection system, gas and electric ignition.

Pensky-Martens flash point tester: PMA 5

Pico 3000/Pico 3000 remote control

Cora 5X00 Raman Spectrometer

Portable benchtop Raman spectrometers: Cora 5X00

Rheometer Measuring Head

Rheometer: MCR 102, MCR 302, MCR 502

Rheometer: MCR 72 and MCR 92

The RheolabQC is the quality control rheometer from Anton Paar. RheolabQC with temperature device C-PTD 180/AIR/QC and with Flexible Cup Holder.

Rotational Rheometer: RheolabQC

SVM 2001 Viscometer

SVM 3001 Viscometer

SVM 4001 Viscometer

With its extended low temperature range the automatic Tag closed cup tester can measure flash points or detect flammable vapors by the flash/no flash method.

Tag Flash Point Tester: TAG 4

High Temperature Vacuum Tribometer

Vacuum Tribometer (VTHT / VTRB)

Xsample 630

Xsample™ 340

Xsample™ 520

Perfect results with automatic cleaning and needle washing using up to three cleaning solvents.

Xsample™ 530

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Anton Paar Applications

AdBlue®/DEF: Refractometric Analysis

AdBlue®/DEF: Refractometric Analysis

AdBlue®, also known as DEF, is an aqueous urea solution. It lowers nitrogen oxides in diesel emissions. International standards demand that refractive index be measured for the determination of the urea concentration in AdBlue®.

Measurement of Ether-Type Fuel Icing Inhibitors in Aviation Fuels

Measurement of Ether-Type Fuel Icing Inhibitors in Aviation Fuels

Fuel system icing inhibitors are added to jet fuel to prevent freezing of the water content at flight altitude. Their concentration in water and therefore the freezing point correlates with the refractive index.

Application PetroOxy: Save on Expensive Antioxidant Additives for Spark-Ignition Fuels

Application PetroOxy: Save on Expensive Antioxidant Additives for Spark-Ignition Fuels

Additives improve the stability and performance of fuel. The correlation of oxidation stability to antioxidant concentration can be determined with the PetroOxy to prevent the excessive use of valuable antioxidant materials and operate cost effective.

Application ADU 5: Distillation of Reference Fluids

Application ADU 5: Distillation of Reference Fluids

Running a distillation with reference fluids is necessary to check the calibration status of the temperature measurement system in an automatic distillation unit.

Application PetroOxy: Temperature Dependency of Test Results According to Arrhenius

Application PetroOxy: Temperature Dependency of Test Results According to Arrhenius

The temperature dependency of test results for diesel was investigated. Arrhenius equation was checked.

Application PetroOxy: Influence of Ignition Improvers (EHN)

Application PetroOxy: Influence of Ignition Improvers (EHN)

Ignition improvers increase the Cetane number of distillate fuels by improving fuel ignition characteristics in the combustion chamber during the compression stroke.

Application PMA 5: Secondary Working Standard 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (Diacetonalcohol)

Application PMA 5: Secondary Working Standard 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (Diacetonalcohol)

Flash point values are a function of the apparatus design, the condition of the apparatus used and the operational procedure carried out.

Application ADU 5: Ethanol Containing Gasoline

Application ADU 5: Ethanol Containing Gasoline

E50 is an important temperature point in gasoline specification. Gasoline oxygenate blends with higher ethanol content show an azeotropic effect which has significant influence on the temperature slope and have special requirements for heater control.

Application PMA 5: Quick Verification

Application PMA 5: Quick Verification

Flash point values are influenced by the type of apparatus, its condition, the test method or how a test is carried out. Adding water to a solvent can raise the flash point value and therefore can be used for a quick check of the instrument performance.

Application ABA 4: Quick Verification

Application ABA 4: Quick Verification

Flash point values are influenced by the type of apparatus, its condition, the test method or how a test is carried out. Adding water to a solvent can raise the flash point value and therefore can be used for a quick check of the instrument performance.

Application Callisto 100: Three Devices Share One Cooling Unit

Application Callisto 100: Three Devices Share One Cooling Unit

Using a special multi-way connector, three Callisto 100 instruments can be connected to a single Julabo FP51-SL cooling unit. This minimizes costs and saves laboratory space.

Application Callisto 100: Small Cooling Unit for Single Device

Application Callisto 100: Small Cooling Unit for Single Device

With the Julabo CF41 a small refrigerated circulator model is now available to be used with a single Callisto 100. This minimizes costs and saves laboratory space.

5 Reasons

Quality Control: Highly accurate density measurements

Density is one of the major measuring parameters for determining the quality and type of petroleum products throughout the whole production process and supply chains.

Anton Paar density meters measure the density and specific gravity of fuels manually or even automatically with one single instrument.

The process density sensors determine, for example, the water content to monitor the fuel’s quality in tank farms, petrol stations, multiproduct pipelines, purchase and sale of fuels, truck loading and unloading, and aircraft refueling in order to avoid oxidation, biodegradation, and clogging. They are used to prevent wrong filling of tanks, to upgrade the volume to mass flow, to determine the mass balance, to minimize product give-away, and to measure LPG in combination with tank gauging during unloading processes to gain highly precise data for fiscal use.

Viscosity, rheology, and tribology under diverse environmental conditions

Viscosity measurements are mostly used to determine the consistency of liquid fuels or fuel oils at low or high temperatures. Cloud point, pour point, and freezing point in correlation with additives can be detected with rheometers to design fuels fit for all possible environmental conditions. Automated high-throughput, turnkey, and customized solutions for rheological and viscosity determination are available for 24/7 operation.

Anton Paar viscometers are designed to comply with relevant ASTM standards. Moreover, it is even possible to measure density and viscosity of the same sample in parallel with one single instrument.

Anton Paar tribometers are used for characterizing fuel lubricity. A high-frequency reciprocating rig test is used to evaluate wear-protection and friction-modulating properties of fuels according to DIN EN standards.

Distillation range, stability, and temperature operability

Anton Paar distillation units for reliable and accurate atmospheric distillation tests show the distillation range of petrochemical products such as aromatic hydrocarbons and other volatile organic liquids. Furthermore, oxidation stability testers determine the stability of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, FAME, and blends) and measure their tendency to form gum (potential residue) under accelerated oxidation conditions. Anton Paar instruments also offer oxidation stability tests, for example for gasoline and aviation fuel. A cold filter plugging point tester determines low temperature operability of, for example, diesel fuel, biodiesel, diesel blends, and gas oils.

Chemical composition and flammability

With Anton Paar’s refractometers the measurement of fuel system icing inhibitors (FSII) in jet fuels is performed to prevent formation of ice in fuel lines at flight altitude. Moreover, Raman spectrometers provide a fingerprint analysis of the chemical composition of fuel. Possible deviations can be investigated and specific information is quickly provided for an efficient quality management. Flash point testers are used to determine the flammability of fuels to reduce the risk at storing or during transport. The specification of the flash point informs about the quality and classification of the hazard category.

Microwave acid digestion, extraction, and synthesis

Fuels are routinely analyzed with ICP or ICP-MS to determine their metal content. For a precise analysis high-quality sample preparation has to be performed prior to the analysis. Anton Paar microwaves for acid digestion following ASTM and EPA standards are the state-of-the art solutions for high-quality sample digestion, achieving reliable results in a short time. Based on the same technology, microwave extraction and microwave synthesis instruments are available to generate, for example, biofuels or other synthetic fuels. Both methods reduce the consumption of fossil fuels which are expensive, limited, non-renewable, and have an environmental impact.