• Lithium-ion battery production

    How to ensure the high quality of your electrodes, electrolytes, and lithium-ion cells via research and production monitoring

  • To support you in achieving the highest quality of lithium-ion batteries, Anton Paar delivers solutions for characterizing active materials in battery materials research, checking the raw materials, verifying the quality of electrolytes and solvents before use, and much more.

    Our instruments will help you understand how the particle size, porosity, density, viscosity, viscoelasticity, and adhesion of your materials affect the behavior and performance of your cells so you can adjust these parameters to create the best final product.

    From research to production

    Battery materials research

    Anton Paar is your strong partner for battery materials research. Use our instruments to determine the liquid and bulk density, surface area, and particle size in order to optimize performance parameters. You can even use our instruments to follow electrochemical processes in-situ to maximize capacity and performance.

    Measuring the pore size and particle size distribution enables you to optimize the properties of the working electrode. Anton Paar’s devices for measuring the true density provide insights into the appropriate mass/volume density in a battery package so you can optimize your cell for applications where either mass or volume is critical. For research into preventing separator failure, knowing the through-pore size means you can identify and reject unsuitable materials from the start.

    If the thermal safety behavior of your product is an important part of your research, measure the flash point to get valuable information. For high-performance electrolytes, knowledge about viscosity can improve the electrolyte’s ionic conductivity. In the quest for novel materials used in anodes, cathodes and separators, microwave synthesis opens up unprecedented reaction conditions leading to new structures.

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    Incoming quality control

    The incoming quality control ensures that only the highest-quality raw materials are accepted and used in production. As an important first step, Anton Paar’s device for representative sampling helps you significantly reduce the variability in your powder analysis results by ensuring the results you base your decisions on came from representative samples.

    Measuring the particle size of the electrode raw material helps you minimize the risk of having to reject whole production batches. Tap density measurements on powders identify differently-behaving powder lots so you can take steps to ensure consistent powder handling. Measuring the through-pore size allows you to select only the right materials to minimize the risk of separator failure.

    With a density measurement you can identify solvents and liquid reagents and verify their quality. For semi-solids and solids like polymer-based electrolytes, the refractive index or concentration can be measured with a refractometer. When materials are expensive or are delivered in a container, they can be identified through packaging with a Raman spectrometer without opening the container.

    Elemental analysis of Li-ion battery compounds is performed with ICP-OES for composition analysis and ICP-MS for contamination analysis. For both techniques an adequately digested sample is required, which can only be achieved with microwave-assisted acid digestion.

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    Slurry preparation

    The right mix of slurry is the prerequisite for successful lithium-ion cell manufacturing. Anton Paar’s technology can help you here in many ways: During mixing of the slurry, unneeded agitation degrades internal structures with time.

    To achieve the maximum homogeneity without breakup of particles you can measure the slurry’s density, particle size, and zeta potential with Anton Paar devices and make appropriate adjustments. Measure and adjust the viscosity of the slurry to make it easily pumpable and store well without sedimentation. 

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    Coating and drying

    To ensure the electrode slurry forms a uniform film with homogeneous coating thickness in order to ensure proper rechargeability over a battery’s lifetime, use an Anton Paar rheometer for in-depth analysis.

    Investigations with rheometers and viscometers help you tailor the application process by adjusting the flow rate and nozzle geometry to achieve an optimized structural recovery of the slurry after application. This enables ideal leveling and prevents sagging, resulting in consistent layer thickness, which is crucial in order to create smaller batteries.

    By measuring the adhesion of the layer with scratch testing instruments you can take steps to ensure that the electrode does not delaminate.

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    Calendering / cutting electrodes / cell assembly

    The process of calendering has a substantial impact on the pore structure and therefore the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion battery cells. To optimize the materials you use as well as your process parameters it is important to quantify the porosity and the nanomechanical properties in the pasted-up electrode foil/pressed electrode.

    You can do this by measuring the pore volume and pore size distribution using Anton Paar’s mercury intrusion porosimeter.

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    Electrolyte filling and formation

    Before filling the electrolytes their quality should be checked to avoid delivering a battery which will give a poor performance. Measuring the density is a reliable way to check that the composition of the electrolyte corresponds to requirements and specifications.

    During the filling process, a rheometer can help you to know how to adjust the nozzle geometry and power of the pump.

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  • Find your solution

    SolutionYour benefitInstrument

    You need to improve the charge/discharge behavior, capacity, or power density.

    Measure the particle size with laser diffraction and DLS, or investigate the nanonstructure of your electrode using small-angle-X-ray scattering.

    By adapting the particle size distribution of the electrode material performance parameters can be optimized. Understanding how your electrode interacts with the electrolyte will help you to improve the capacity and the lifetime of your battery.


    You need to make sure the delivered materials are the ones ordered, are clean and pure, have the right concentration, and that the obtained measurement results comply with the information on the raw material supplied.

    Measure the density as a quick and convenient quality check on all liquid raw materials.

    Fast, accurate, automated, and safe analysis of all liquid raw materials avoids mistakes in R&D and ensures ideal battery performance.


    You need to understand the properties of the materials used in the electrode slurry to ensure the slurry mix will have the correct composition and consistency.

    Check the density, viscosity, viscoelasticity, and thixotropic behavior of slurry materials to ensure consistency and quality.

    These density and viscosity checks provide traceability and result in significant material-, cost-, and time-savings.


    You want to reduce the amount of slurry sample needed for analysis in order to get fast results and reduce time and material costs.

    Measure the density with a benchtop density meter.

    Quick density checks only require a small amount of slurry which saves money without compromising on research results.


    You want to minimize the risk of electrode failure due to poor adhesion of the coating.

    Determine the zeta potential as this correlates with the adhesion of the coating.

    Knowing the zeta potential allows you to optimize surface characteristics to achieve optimal adhesion, which is less likely to lead to electrode failure.


    You want to produce cells with better retention of charge capacity.

    Measure the micro- and mesopore size distribution by gas adsorption.

    Based on these results you can optimize the nanostructure of the materials to improve diffusion and reduce volume changes in the working electrode.


    You want to produce lithium-ion cells which have predictable and reproducible charge/discharge performance.

    Measure the surface area by gas adsorption.

    With knowledge of the surface area it can be adjusted to achieve the appropriate current characteristics of the electrode solids.


    You want to have consistent and improved particle-particle contact to achieve lower interparticle resistance and make thinner electrodes.

    Measure the tap density.

    The results can be used to optimize particle packing density.


    You want to minimize the risk of separator failure due to use of unsuitable materials.

    Measure the through-pore size by capillary porometry.

    With this analysis unsuitable materials can be easily identified and rejected.


    You want to minimize the risk of separator failure due to incomplete wetting.

    Determine the zeta potential as this correlates with wetting.

    You can use this information to avoid parasitic resistance at the separator/electrode interface due to incomplete wetting.


    You need to develop high-performance electrolytes that enable fast charging and discharging over a wide temperature range.

    Measure the viscosity of your electrolyte with a rolling-ball viscometer

    Knowledge of the viscosity enables fine-tuning of the electrolyte's ionic conductivity.


    You are interested in the thermal safety of your lithium-ion batteries.

    Conduct flash point measurements on your electrolytes in use.

    By determining the flash point of your electrolytes, you can optimize the thermal safety behavior and the performance of your batteries.


    You need to find and develop new battery materials

    Safely perform your synthesis reactions in a microwave reactor at up to 300 °C and 80 bar

    Highly efficient and safe production of new battery materials that lead to advanced battery performance. Combining synthesis with Raman spectroscopy you can even optimize the reaction time in order to increase efficiency.


    You want to ensure that your raw powders have the appropriate particle size for further processing.

    Analyze the particle size and particle size distribution.

    Gaining knowledge about these key parameters helps when deciding whether to further process or reject the material.


    You want to reduce the variability in your powder analysis results.

    Use representative sampling by rotary riffling.

    When the samples are representative you save time because fewer repeat analyses are needed to get more representative and more precise results.


    You want to ensure consistent powder handling.

    Measure the tap density.

    This measurement allows you to identify differently-behaving powder lots.


    You want your li-ion cells to have a predictable and reproducible charge/discharge performance.

    Measure the surface area by gas adsorption.

    The current characteristics of the electrode solids can be adjusted to improve charge/discharge performance.


    You want to optimize the package size and free electrolyte space by having the best possible mass/volume density.

    Measure the true density by gas pycnometry.

    Improved mass/volume density allows for reduction of the package size.


    You want to define a consistent slurry formulation and have predictable slurry behavior.

    Measure the surface area by gas adsorption.

    Material costs are reduced and consistent quality is ensured.


    As the quality manager in lithium-ion battery production, you need to guarantee fast quality control of the electrolytes.

    Measure the refractive index or the concentration of electrolytes, regardless of it being a liquid or a polymer.

    The production of batteries with ideal efficiency rate is guaranteed.


    You need to make sure the delivered materials are the ones ordered, are clean and pure, without wasting expensive material on analysis or opening the container.

    Measure a Raman spectrum and compare with a defined library spectrum to verify your incoming raw material, even on solids such as membrane materials and graphene.

    Fast, accurate, and non-invasive analysis, even through packaging.


    You want to optimize your sample preparation for the subsequent elemental analysis.

    Digest your sample with a microwave system.

    Perfectly prepared and reproducible sample for the subsequent elemental analysis.


    You want to discover whether the electrode raw material forms aggregates.

    Measure the particle size.

    Using this knowledge electrode performance can be optimized by modifying or exchanging raw materials.


    You want to understand the aggregation tendency of the anode and cathode slurry dispersion.

    Measure the zeta potential by ELS.

    Use the results to formulate a stable slurry dispersion and optimize electrode performance.


    You want to avoid unneeded agitation of the slurry by determining the time required to reach homogeneity.

    Measure the density, viscosity, viscoelasticity, and thixotropic behavior.

    These measurements indicate the right amount of mixing needed to optimize parameters such as speed, time, and temperature and save material costs.


    You want to pump the slurry out of the tank in a smooth and easy way.

    Determine the shear-rate-dependent viscosities and yield point.

    Knowing the required pumping power makes it possible to choose an appropriate pump or to adjust the formulation for better pumpability.


    You want to find the perfect slurry consistency that can be easily stored and used even after some time without loss of quality.

    Test the sedimentation stability of the slurry by performing viscoelasticity tests and zeta potential measurements.

    With this knowledge steps can be taken to prevent particles from sedimenting out with time and the homogeneity can be maintained.


    The coating on the electrodes delaminates too early.

    Measure the adhesion of different coatings using scratch testers.

    The results allow for cross-checking to see if changing the coating parameters improve or impair delamination.


    You want to improve the coating process and get perfect layer forming.

    Measure the thixotropy and structural recovery.

    The results curve shows the slurry recovery time after application and helps you find out how to achieve good surface leveling.


    You want to obtain optimized mass/volume density in the manufactured battery package.

    Measure the true density by gas pycnometry.

    The result allows for proper adjustment of formulation and process parameters as necessary.


    You want to define the pore size and pore volume of your pasted-up electrode foils/pressed electrodes.

    Measure the quantitative pore volume and pore size distribution of dry electrodes by mercury intrusion porosimetry.

    Using this knowledge materials and process parameters can be specified.


    You need to check the quality of electrolytes before filling.

    Perform quick quality checks on the filled electrolytes to ensure the quality and reduce the risk of problems resulting from poor quality raw materials.

    For a reliable electrolyte composition check, density measurement is the ideal solution to avoid delivering batteries with poor performance, while corresponding to requirements and specifications.


    How does the nozzle for the electrolyte filling process have to be designed?

    Perform viscosity measurements and determine the yield point to adjust the nozzle geometry and power of the pump.

    You achieve ideal filling of the batteries without splashing, dripping, and formation of air bubbles.


    You did not find your specific situation? Anton Paar still has the solution for your challenge. Just contact us for more information. 

  • 3-year warranty

    • Effective January 1, 2020, all new Anton Paar instruments* include repair for 3 years.
    • Customers avoid unforeseen costs and can always rely on their instrument.
    • Alongside the warranty there is a wide range of additional services and maintenance options available.

    * Due to the technology they use, some instruments require maintenance according to a maintenance schedule. Complying with the maintenance schedule is a prerequisite for the 3-year warranty.

    Learn more

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  • Automation for your R&D and QC laboratories

    Anton Paar offers fully automated and customizable solutions for your requirements.

    High-throughput Rheometer HTR

    The HTR features a complete MCR rheometer and is the fully automated solution for your rheological tests, from sample identification to geometry cleaning.


    • Fully automated rheological measurements of materials and electrode slurries
    • High-throughput testing for faster time-to-market and better quality control
    • Automated sample trimming and cleaning for high reproducibility
    • Minimization of human errors down to zero
    • Rheological analysis 24/7
    • Bi-directional communication with your LIMS system guarantees quick data access, flexibility, and data integrity

    High-throughput Platform HTX

    Anton Paar’s HTX is the cutting edge platform for your automated laboratory workflow. Sample preparation and different analytics are combined into one customized automated solution.


    • One system provides automated analytics (e.g. density, particle size, pH, viscosity, and more) of your materials and electrode slurries
    • Sample preparation and testing in the fastest possible way
    • Safety for employees dealing with hazardous substances
    • Minimization of human errors down to zero
    • System runs 24/7
    • Bi-directional communication with your LIMS which guarantees maximized flexibility in terms of different workflows for sample preparation