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SAXS

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SAXSpace from Anton Paar: Ease of use for nanostructure analysis. Setting the pace in SAXS nanostructure analysis

Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a non-destructive method for investigating nanostructures from <1 nm up to 200 nm in size. Important SAXS applications include GI-SAXS (for nanostructured surface studies)
and Bio-SAXS (for protein analysis).

Anton Paar is the leading manufacturer of small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering systems.
The new SAXSpace is a modular nanostructure analyzer as precise and swift as the company’s prior solutions, yet furthered by unique new features to offer users far more application options and considerably simplified handling.

The system's scatterless X-ray beam collimation guarantees highest data quality, whether at small or wide scattering angles, at grazing incidence or in Bio-SAXS applications. The SmartSAXS feature enables both line and point collimation – optionally even at once, with two or more beam lines connected to the same X-ray source.
SAXSpace is the most easily operated SWAXS system available: Based on its TrueFocus feature, the system aligns itself fully automatically. SAXS experts benefit from the spacious sample chamber and versatility of SAXSpace, enabling high-throughput screening of multiple samples and allowing for full experimental flexibility.

Small-angle X-ray scattering is used for many applications:

  • Nanostructure analysis (shape, size and internal structure)
  • Dispersion stability
  • Particle nucleation
  • Porosity (specific surface)
  • Crystallinity and orientation
  • Biological macromolecules in solution (Bio-SAXS)
  • Nanostructured surfaces (GISAXS)

Anton Paar’s SAXSpace system: Ease of use for nanostructure analysis.
Call our SAXS specialists at Anton Paar for an in-depth discussion!

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The structure of inhomogeneous (core-shell) nanoparticleswas studied with the SAXSpace system. The internalstructure of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate micelles in water wasdetermined by

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The structure of inhomogeneous (core-shell) nanoparticleswas studied with the SAXSpace system. The internalstructure of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate micelles in water wasdetermined by calculating the radial electron density profile.

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Microfibril angle in coir fibers during tensile straining was studied using the SAXSpace system operated in point collimation mode in combination with the integrated TS 600 tensile

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Microfibril angle in coir fibers during tensile straining was studied using the SAXSpace system operated in point collimation mode in combination with the integrated TS 600 tensile stage. Theexperiment demonstrates the possibility to characterize structuralchanges in complex materials during mechanical tests.

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Small Angle X-Ray Scattering instruments use two different beam geometries - point collimation and line collimation.Using a line shaped beam dramatically reduces the measurement

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Small Angle X-Ray Scattering instruments use two different beam geometries - point collimation and line collimation.Using a line shaped beam dramatically reduces the measurement time while maintaining the same data quality.

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A 1% Lysozyme solution was measured with the SAXSpacesystem. Structural information can be obtained already after1 minute due to the highly intense line-collimation mode andthe

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A 1% Lysozyme solution was measured with the SAXSpacesystem. Structural information can be obtained already after1 minute due to the highly intense line-collimation mode andthe compact design of the SAXSpace system.

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The nanostructure of pharmaceutical excipients used as tastemasking agents was rapidly determined for quick qualitycontrol with the SAXSpace system.

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The GI-SAXS (Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering) method enables you to characterize surface structures in the nanometer scale. In contrast to regular SAXS measurements

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The GI-SAXS (Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering) method enables you to characterize surface structures in the nanometer scale. In contrast to regular SAXS measurements in transmission, GI-SAXS probes structures on – or close to – a surface, and is of particular advantage for analyzing thin films.

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The molecular weight of Glucose Isomerase was determinedwith the SAXSpace small-angle X-ray scattering system. Theresults are in good agreement with theoretically calculatedvalues

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The molecular weight of Glucose Isomerase was determinedwith the SAXSpace small-angle X-ray scattering system. Theresults are in good agreement with theoretically calculatedvalues from X-ray crystallography data.

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The 3-dimensional shape of Glucose Isomerase in solutionwas studied with the SAXSpace system. The solutionstructure of this protein was compared with the crystalstructure obtained

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The 3-dimensional shape of Glucose Isomerase in solutionwas studied with the SAXSpace system. The solutionstructure of this protein was compared with the crystalstructure obtained by X-ray crystallography.

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The structure of pharmaceutical excipients as a function of storage
time and temperature was analyzed by small- and wide-angle X-ray
scattering using the SAXSpace system.

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A dispersion of nanosized CdSe quantum dots was analyzedwith the SAXSpace system. The particle size, which is a verycrucial parameter for the properties of quantum dots,

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A dispersion of nanosized CdSe quantum dots was analyzedwith the SAXSpace system. The particle size, which is a verycrucial parameter for the properties of quantum dots, wasdetermined within a very short time.

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Small-Angle X-ray Scattering, SAXS for short, is an increasingly popular technique for structural investigations in molecular biology, offering valuable complementary information

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Small-Angle X-ray Scattering, SAXS for short, is an increasingly popular technique for structural investigations in molecular biology, offering valuable complementary information to established techniques.

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Gold nanoparticle dispersions were measured with theSAXSpace system. SAXS proved to be a well-suited methodfor determining the size distribution of a binary mixture of

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Gold nanoparticle dispersions were measured with theSAXSpace system. SAXS proved to be a well-suited methodfor determining the size distribution of a binary mixture of twodispersions with very similar particle size.

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SAXS is routinely used for the characterization of liquid crystalline phases. If the crystalline domains are large and the sample is very viscous the scattering is not averaged

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SAXS is routinely used for the characterization of liquid crystalline phases. If the crystalline domains are large and the sample is very viscous the scattering is not averaged over all orientations. The RotorCell enables measuring such samples.

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A mesoporous material was studied with the SAXSpacesystem. Important structural parameters like pore size,degree of polydispersity, total volume fraction of the poresand

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A mesoporous material was studied with the SAXSpacesystem. Important structural parameters like pore size,degree of polydispersity, total volume fraction of the poresand arrangement of the pores were obtained.

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Evaluation of interacting (charged or concentrated) particlesrequires the knowledge of “form and structure factor”. Theunique GIFT software allows to study samples in their

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Evaluation of interacting (charged or concentrated) particlesrequires the knowledge of “form and structure factor”. Theunique GIFT software allows to study samples in their originalstate and to determine the nanostructure of the particles.

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A polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite wasmeasured with the SAXSpace system. The internal structureof the nanotubes was determined by calculating the electrondensity

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A polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite wasmeasured with the SAXSpace system. The internal structureof the nanotubes was determined by calculating the electrondensity profile of the nanotube’s cross-section.

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The SAXSpace system was used to characterizenano-structured lamellae present in a surfactant sample.The internal structure (core-shell) of the lamellae could beprecisely

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The SAXSpace system was used to characterizenano-structured lamellae present in a surfactant sample.The internal structure (core-shell) of the lamellae could beprecisely determined.


SAXS

Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is a non-destructive method which evaluates the X-ray scattering pattern of nanoparticles (homogeneous particles, macromolecules, etc.) at small angles to get information about their particle structure.

The incoming X-ray beam interacts with the electrons of all atoms in the macromolecule, resulting in a so-called “scattering pattern” (= different X-ray intensities at different scattering angles), which is characteristic for the particle structure, i.e. size, shape and internal structure.

 

 

SAXS benefits

SAXS results are representative of an entire sample, so SAXS ideally complements methods that provide unique but local information, such as electron microscopy.

 

 

Another essential benefit of SAXS is that it barely requires any sample preparation. This sets it apart from complementary techniques such as electron microscopy or NMR spectroscopy, which often require extensive sample preparation. And since SAXS allows in-situ measurements, preparation artifacts are avoided and the sample remains unchanged.

 

 

SAXS also stands out for the fact that it can be used to investigate biological macromolecules in solution, under physiological conditions. This increasingly popular application known as Bio-SAXS is a vital tool in molecular biology, where the analysis of samples in their native state is essential for studying the dynamic processes the sample is involved in.

 

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SAXS parameters

SAXS is used to determine several parameters of nanostructured samples:

  • Shape
  • Size
  • Internal Structure
  • Crystallinity
  • Porosity (Surface per volume)

 

 

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Grazing-Incidence SAXS

GI-SAXS is a rather new method used to investigate thin films with nanostructures on the substrate surface, including studies of surface roughness. Under grazing incidence conditions, the incident beam undergoes total reflection if the angle is close to the critical angle. The scattered signal is a sampling of the structures on the surface or slightly below the surface, depending on the applied entrance angle. The data is collected off-specular, i.e. at angles to the left and right of the totally reflected beam.

 

 

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Scattering vector q

It is common practice in small-angle scattering (SAXS, SANS, SALS) to present scattering angles in q: instead of the scattering angle 2θ which is normally used in XRD. This provides the benefit of obtaining results independent of the wavelength. q is also known as momentum transfer.

 

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The difference between SAXS and WAXS

SAXS is used to analyze nanosized particles and domains (size range: 1 to 100 nm) which scatter towards small angles. The SAXS pattern provides information on the size and shape of these particles. It therefore helps to elucidate the nanostructure of the sample.


WAXS/XRD is used to analyze smaller structures (<1 nm). Atoms and interatomic distances scatter towards large angles. The obtained Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) pattern provides information on the phase state, crystal symmetry and the molecular structure.

 

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Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)

Anton Paar’s success story as a manufacturer of scientific instruments for X-ray structure analysis began in the 1950s:
In Graz, the chemist Otto Kratky developed his legendary Kratky camera, which used small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to provide a practically usable analysis of the nanostructure of solids and liquids.


From 1957, Anton Paar GmbH was the exclusive partner for the production and sales of this camera. Up to 2003, more than 800 “Kratky compact cameras” were produced and sold by Anton Paar and supplied as an OEM component to other providers of SAXS systems, such as Siemens, Philips and, to a lesser extent, Hecus.


In 2003 an improved system, further developed by the former Kratky Institute, was successfully launched under the name SAXSess. In 2009, this instrument was incorporated in the new SAXSess mc² system, an integrated platform for SWAXS analysis.


The new SAXSpace nanostructure analyzer represents the latest generation of state-of-the-art SWAXS instrumentation. Developed by Anton Paar GmbH, SAXSpace stands out for easy operation combined with full experimental flexibility in SWAXS, Bio-SAXS and GI-SAXS applications. SAXSpace is produced and marketed worldwide by Anton Paar GmbH.